URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI) (CHRONIC PYELONEPHRITIS)

URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI) (CHRONIC PYELONEPHRITIS) DEFINITION:- UTI refers to an infection within the lower urinary tract leading to symptoms and sign depending on the involved sites. The infection can affect the... Read more »

URETHRAL STRICTURES

URETHRAL STRICTURES DEFINITION:- A urethral strictures is a narrowing of the lumen of the uthera as a result of scar tissue and contraction. CAUSES:- UTI Urethritis Ineffective sexual intercourse Surgical instruments (catheters)... Read more »

URETHRITIS

URETHRITIS DEFINITION:- It is an inflammation of urethra. CLASSIFICATION:- Gonococcal Urethritis Caused by N.Gonorrhoea and transmitted by sexual contact. Inflammation of urethral meatus or orifice occurs with burning on urination. A purulent... Read more »

RETENTION OF URINE (URINARY RETENTION)

RETENTION OF URINE (URINARY RETENTION) DEFINITION:- It means that urine is retained in the bladder. Urine production continue, but accumulation is not released. CAUSES:- BPH Urethral stricture Urethral valves disease Phimosis (narrowing... Read more »

RENAL STONE (NEPHROLITHIASIS)

RENAL STONE (NEPHROLITHIASIS) DEFINITION:- The Calculus (Stone) formation in kidney is called Nephrolithiasis. CAUSES:- Preceptors increases in urine, e.g., matrix, bacterial infection and other inflammation causes. Increases soluble concentration of calcium, oxalate,... Read more »

NEPHROTIC SYNDROME

NEPHROTIC SYNDROME DEFINITION:- Acute nephrotic syndrome is the clinical manifestation of glomerular inflammation. Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomerular capillaries. Nephrotic syndrome is a primary glomerular disease characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia,... Read more »

GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

GLOMERULONEPHRITIS DEFINITION:- It is an inflammatory process of glomerular portion of kidney due to changes in immune system. CAUSES:- It is an immunologic disorder that occur in response to either endogenous antigen... Read more »

CYSTITIS

CYSTITIS DEFINITION:- It is an inflammation of urinary bladder mostly caused by infection or without infection. CAUSES:- Chemical agents Autoimmune process Allergic reaction Bacterial infection (mostly Escherichia coli) SIGN/SYMPTOMS:- Intermittent flares of... Read more »

CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE DEFINITION:- Chronic Renal Failure or irreversible failure is a progressive reduction of renal function that leads to uraemia (increase urea and nitrogen waste in blood). CAUSES:- Glomerular dysfunction Hypertension... Read more »

ACUTE RENAL FAILURE

ACUTE RENAL FAILURE DEFINITION:- Acute Renal Failure (ARF) refers to the abrupt loss of kidney function. It frequently associated with an increase in BUN and creatinine. CAUSES:- Prerenal Causes: Sudden and severe... Read more »