VOMITING DEFINITION:- It is forceful expulsion of the stomach contents through the mouth and sometimes the nose. CAUSES:- Gastritis Poisoning Brain tumors Medication Intense pain Overeating Heart attack Brain injury Ulcers Some... Read more »


SHOCK DEFINITION:- Shock is medical emergency in which the organs and tissue of the body are not receiving an adequate blood flow. TYPES:- Cardiogenic shock: Associated with heart problems. Hypovolemic shock: Caused... Read more »


INCONTINENCE DEFINITION:- Inability of body to control the evacuation functions of urination or defecation is called incontinence. It may be of following types: Faecal incontinence: Involuntary excretion of bowel contents. Urinary incontinence:... Read more »


GANGRENE DEFINITION:- GANGRENE refers to the the death of body tissue due to lack of blood flow or bacterial infection. CAUSES:- Infection Injury Tight bandage/plaster Heat/cold Obstruction in blood vessels, e.g., arteriosclerosis,... Read more »


EDEMA DEFINITION:- Edema is the medical term for swelling. It is a general response of the body to injury or inflammation. CAUSES:- Decrease albumin level Allergic reaction Obstruction of flow Burns CHF... Read more »


COMA (UNCONSCIOUSNESS) DEFINITION:- It is defined as a deep sleep like state from which patient can not be aroused. CAUSES:- Metabolic Diabetes Uraemia Alcoholism Liver failure Drug induced e.g., sedatives. Trauma Brain... Read more »


PAIN MANAGEMENT DEFINITION:- Pain is an unpleasent experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. TYPES:- There are so many types, according to severity, onset, nature and continuity, e.g.,. According to severity:... Read more »


INFLAMMATION DEFINITION:- Inflammation is a response of a tissues to injury, often injury caused by invading pathogen. CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Chemical Irritants X-ray Frostbite Infection by pathogens Hypersensitivity reactions Burns Radiation Trauma Toxins Physical... Read more »


DYSPNEA DEFINITION:- It means feeling of breathlessness or breathing difficulty due to respiratory or heart disease. CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Asthma. Pneumonia. Cardiac ischemia. Lung disease. CHF. COPD. Psychogenic causes. SIGNS/SYMPTOMS:- Hypotension. Hypoxemia. Tracheal deviation.... Read more »


DIARRHOEA DEFINITION:- Evacuation of liquid or watery stool frequently is known as diarrhoea. TYPES:- Acute Chronic. CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Dietary related causes: Indigestion Food allergy Starvation Over feeding Food poisoning Chemical irritant, e.g., Mercury.... Read more »