PULMONARY HYPERTENSION DEFINITION:- A condition in which blood pressure raise within the blood vessels while supplying it to the lungs. Pulmonary hypertension may be due to complication of pulmonary embolism. CAUSES:- Pulmonary... Read more »


PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS DEFINITION:- It is a chronic infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis and characterized by the formation of tubercles (round nodules, warty outgrowth) or granulomas in lungs. Granulomas means localized collection... Read more »


PULMONARY EMBOLISM DEFINITION:- Pulmonary embolism refers to the obstruction of pulmonary artery or one of its branches by an embolus. Embolus: Material, such as blood clot, fat, air, amniotic fluid, or a... Read more »


PNEUMONIA DEFINITION:- It is an inflammation of lung parenchyma which is associated with marked increase interstitial and alveolar fluid. CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Bacterial infection: Gram +ve: Strep. Pneumonia Strep. aurious. Gram -ve: H. influenza... Read more »


PLEURISY DEFINITION:- It is an inflammation of pleura, both partial and visceral. Also called pleuritis. (pleura is the outer covering membrane of lung). CAUSES/ETIOLOGY:- Viral infection is common cause of pleurisy Respiratory... Read more »


PLEURAL EFFUSION DEFINITION:- pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. It may be transduate (serous) or exudate. CAUSES/RISK FACTORS:- Heart failure, Liver failure, Renal failure. Lymphatic obstruction T.B.... Read more »


LUNG ABSCESS DEFINITION:- It is defined as collection of pus or Purulent material in a localized area of lung. It makes cavity formed by necrosis of lung tissue. CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Bacterial infection: Gram... Read more »


EMPYEMA (PYOTHORAX) DEFINITION:- It is an accumulation of pus (fluid) in pleural cavity. The pus may be as thin as serous fluid or so thick that it is impossible to aspirate even... Read more »


EMPHYSEMA DEFINITION:- It is defined as impaired gas exchange (Oxygen, Carbon dioxide) resulting from destruction of walls of over distended alveoli or permanent dilation of air spaces (distal to terminal bronchiole). RISK... Read more »


BRONCHITIS (BRONCHIOLITIS) DEFINITION:- It is an acute or chronic inflammation of mucous membrane of tracheo-bronchioles resulting to hypersecretion of mucous, swollen due to viral infection (Myxovirus). RISK FACTORS:- Smoking Other enviromental pollutants... Read more »