ULCERATIVE COLITIS DEFINITION:- It is an inflammation of colon. Which usually starts from rectum and spreads to colon and slowly it involves intestinal membranes and all the layers of intestine (large) and... Read more »


PERITONITIS DEFINITION:- An acute or chronic inflammation of peritoneum layer and peritoneal cavity. TYPES/CAUSES:- Primary: Bacterial infection Blood infection (Septicemia) Genital tract infection Cirrhosis with ascites. Secondary: Trauma Surgical Trauma Due to... Read more »


PEPTIC ULCER DEFINITION:- It is a breakdown in continuity of mucous membrane of duodenum, oesophagus, stomach or a breach in lining (mucosa) of digestive tract produced by digestion of mucosa by pepsin... Read more »


JAUNDICE DEFINITION:- Jaundice is a yellow discolouration of body or skin due to alteration of bilirubin metabolism. bilirubin level exceeds upto 3 times than normal. Normal value 0.3-1.2 mg/dl. CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Haemolytic (prehepatic)... Read more »


FISTULA DEFINITION:- It is a tube like linkage between the body cavity. TYPES:- It is of two types: RVF: Rectovaginal fistula. VVF: Vasico vaginal fistula. CAUSES:- Abscess: Rectal abscess always proceed rectovaginal... Read more »


ASCITES DEFINITION:- An accumulation of fluid in peritoneum cavity is called ascites. CAUSES:- Liver cirrhosis Liver carcinoma Due to CHF (Congestive Heart Disease) Due to infection in peritoneum Peritonitis Cancer of peritoneum... Read more »


ABDOMINAL HERNIA DEFINITION:- A protrusion from cavity wall of any organ, tissue or structure is called Hernia. This is mostly seen in abdominal cavity. CLASSIFICATION (According to Area):- Hiatal Hernia/Diaphragmatic: A protrusion... Read more »


ANAL FISSURE DEFINITION:- Anal fissure is linear laceration of anal epithelium associated with constipation. CAUSES:- Constipation (hard stool) During child birth Trauma Crohn’s disease (an inflammed, thickened and ulcerated alimentary tract) Tuberculosis.... Read more »


CHOLECYSTITIS DEFINITION:- Cholecystitis (cholelithiasis or Gallstone): It is an inflammation of gall bladder causing severe abdominal pain. TYPES:- Acute Cholecystitis: It is mostly caused by Gallstone. Chronic Cholecystitis: Repeated acute attack of... Read more »


INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION DEFINITION:- Intestinal obstruction is an interruption in normal flow of intestinal contents along the intestinal tract. TYPES:- Mechanical: A physical block to passage of intestinal contents without distrubing blood supply... Read more »