HYPONATRAEMIA

HYPONATRAEMIA DEFINITION:- It is condition a of electrolyte imbalance in which sodium ion concentration in the serum/blood is lower than normal range. Normal serum sodium level: 135-145 mEq/L Hyponatraemia: below the 135... Read more »

HYPERNATREMIA

HYPERNATREMIA DEFINITION:- It is condition of electrolyte imbalance in which sodium ion concentration in the serum/blood is Higher than normal range. Normal serum sodium level: 135-145 mEq/L Hypernatraemia: Above the 145 mEq/L... Read more »

HYPOKALEMIA

HYPOKALEMIA DEFINITION:- It is condition of electrolyte imbalance in which potassium in concentration in the serum/blood is Lower than normal range. Normal range: 3.5-4.5 mEq/L CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Vomiting Diarrhoea Renal disorders Cushing syndrome... Read more »

HYPERKALEMIA

HYPERKALEMIA DEFINITION:- It is condition of electrolyte imbalance in which potassium in concentration in the serum/blood is Higher than normal range. Normal range: 3.5-4.5 mEq/L CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Medications (NSAIDs/ACE inhibitors) Acidosis (Respiratory and... Read more »

HYPOCALCEMIA

HYPOCALCEMIA DEFINITION:- It is condition of electrolyte imbalance in which calcium in concentration in the serum/blood is less than normal range. Normal range: 9-10.5 mg/dl. CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Vit.D deficiency Acute renal failure Poor... Read more »

HYPERCALCEMIA

HYPERCALCEMIA DEFINITION:- It is condition of electrolyte imbalance in which calcium in concentration in the serum/blood is higher than normal range. Normal range: 9-10.5 mg/dl. CAUSES/AETIOLOGY:- Hyperparathyroidism Parathyroid carcinoma Tumour Over treated... Read more »