VALVULAR HEART DISEASE DEFINITION:- It is an acute and congenital disorders of a valve charactersized by stenosis (obstruction), impaired closure and regurgitation of blood. Regurgitation (back flow). Mitral valve Disease Mitral Stenosis:... Read more »


RAYNAUD’S DISEASE DEFINITION:- It is a condition of unknown cause in which arteries of finger’s are unduly reactive and enter spasm (angiospasm or vasospasm) when the hands are cold. OR It is... Read more »


CARDIAC ARREST DEFINITION:- It is defined as the cessation of effective pumping action of heart. Which commonly occurs when the muscles fibers of ventricles start to beat rapidly without pumping any blood... Read more »


ARTHEROSCLEROSIS DEFINITION:- It is defined as accumulation of fat in wall of blood vessels (artery or veins) or hardening of blood vessels due to increase level of cholestrol in blood or serum.... Read more »


ANEURYSM DEFINITION:- An aneurism is a distension of an artery brought about a weakening destruction of arterial wall. (A balloon-like swelling in the wall of an artery.) CAUSES:- Smoking Local infection Congenital... Read more »


PERICARDITIS DEFINITION:- An acute or chronic inflammation of pericardium (outer layer) of heart is called pericarditis. CAUSES:- Infections: Viral (Influenza virus) Bacterial (step.Meningococcus) Fungal Parasitic Tuberculosis. Chest trauma Heart surgery including pacemaker... Read more »


MYOCARDITIS DEFINITION:- An acute or chronic inflammation of myocardium (middle layer between pericardium and endocardium) of heart. CAUSES:- Viral infections Bacterial infections Fungal infections Parasitic Collagen disease Due to immune suppressive therapy.... Read more »


ENDOCARDITIS DEFINITION:- An acute or chronic inflammation of endocardium (inner layer) of heart. Also known as bacterial endocarditis. CAUSES:- Bacterial infections (beta-hemolytic streptococcus): S.aurous S.viridae Enterococci Fungi: Candida Rickettsiae. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:-... Read more »


CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE DEFINITION:- It is a Physiological state in which heart is incapable to pump blood according to metabolic need. Heart failure is not a disease but group of manifestation in... Read more »


ANGINA PECTORIS DEFINITION:- It is Chest pain due to ischemia of heart muscles generally due to obstruction or spasm in Coronary Artery. TYPES:- Stable: Increases Oxygen demand Unstable: During rest chest pain... Read more »